Grihasti Dharma Vivarana: Atah param Grihastasya Dharmaachaaram kulou yuge, Dharmam saadhaaranam shaktyaa chaaturvarnaashwaramaagatam/ Sampravakshyamaham bhuyam Parasharavacho yatha, Shatkarmanirato ViprahKrishi karmaapi kaarayet/(Parashara Maharshi describes the Grihasti Dharmas in Kali Yuga as regulatory duties to all the house holders among all the Four Varnas; Brahmanas especially need to meticulously observe the Shat Karmas [as detailed above] besides agricultural activities too). Kshuditam trushitam shraantam baleevardham na yojayet, Heenaangam vyadhitam kleevam Vrusham Vipro na vaahayet/ ( Oxen which are hungry, thirsty and tired as also diseased, lame and listless are not to be driven in carts). Japam Devarchanam homam swadhyaayam saangamabhyaset pashchaat snaatakaan dwijah/ Dwijas are required to daily observe japa, DevaPuja, Homa, Veda-Vedanga adhyayaa after Shuchi snaana and atleast provide bhojana to deserving Brahmans of atleast one or two or three or even four in numbers every day). Swayam krushte tathaa kshetre dhaanouscha swayamaarjitaih, Nirvepeta Pancha Yagjnaamscha kratu deekshaancha kaarayat/ (In this manner, the Grihasthi should also undertake the tilling of his own land, procure his own food, besides execute the Pancha Yagnas of Deva-Pitru- Bhuta-Nara-Atithis on daily basis). Tilaa rasaa na vikreyaa dhaanyatatsamaah, Viprasaivam vidhaa vrittistruna kaashtaadi vivikraha/ (Sale of Tilas and juices should not be resorted but sale of dhaanya and wood would be in order; Brahmana should eke out his lively hood likewise). Halamashtagavam dharmam shadgavam vritti lakshanam, Chaturvagam nrushaamsaanam dwigavam Vrishaghaatinam/ (Ploughing with eight oxen is stated to be ideal as per dharma, six oxen would be as per the characteristic of business, four oxen might be minimam but trying to take up the plough is quite mean and unjust to the animals). Dwigavam vaahayet paadam Madhya -ahnam tu chaturgavam, Shadgavam tu triyaamaaheshtabhim purnam tu vaahayet/ (In the event of tilling with only two oxen then in all fairness the tilling time be restricted only to one-third of a day, if it were to be with four animals then it could be for two thirds of a day, but if the tilling has to be day long then eight animals would be in order). Na yaati narakeshvevam vartamaanastu vai dwijah, Daanam dadyaat chaaiveteshaam prashastam swarga saadhanam/ (In case this above principle is not adopted, then daana dharma would be performed inevitably as means of attaining swarga). Braahmanastu krishim krutwaa mahaa doshamavaapnuyaat, Samvatsarena yatpaapam matsyaghaati samaapnuyaat, Ayomukhena kaashtena tadekaahena laangalo/ (If the above is not observed, a Brahmana would indeed be liable to a sizeable sin which tantamounts to that of a fisherman catching fish or a black and hideous faced low caste ploughmans’output in a day!) Paashako matsya ghati va vyaadhah shaakunistathaa, Adaataa karshakaschaiva panchaite samabhakinah/ (The sin committed by a fisherman, a hunter, a slaughterer, a diceman and bird killer might be worse than that of a Brahmana tilling land with two oxen). Kundini peshani chulli udakumbhatha maarjani, Pancha suna grihastasya ahanyahani vartate/ (As it is, in each house hold there are five killing places viz. a pounder, a gastric mill, a cooking stove, a water pot and a sweeper). Vaishwadevo balibhikshaa gograaso hantaaarakah, Grihasthah pratyaha kuryaat sunaa dorsharna lipyate/(The five relieving remedies absorbing the five places of killings in a household happen to be the Vaishwadeva Yagjna, bali karma, bhiksha pradana, giving grass to cows, and these offsetting the daily killings otherwise). Vrikshaan chitwaa Maheem bhitwaa hatwaa tu mriga keetakaan, Karshakah khalu yagjnena sarvaa paapaat pramuchyate/ ( The farmer is saving himself by performing yagjnas from the sins committed by cutting trees, digging earth, killings of animals and ‘krimi keetas’)Yon a dadyaad dwijaatibhyo raashi mulamupaagatah, sa chourah sa cha paapishtho Brahmaghnam tam vinirdishet/ (Those farmers seated near the heaps of foodgrains without parting any to Brahmanas would be aptly named thieves and sinners, worth being called Brahma ghaatis!) Kshatriyopi krushim krutwaa Dwijaan Devaamscha pujayet, Vaishyah anyastathaakuryat krushi vaanijya shilpikaan/ (Indeeed, Kshatrias display their industriousness and courage and serve Brahmanas for their involvement and dedication in Deva Pujas, Vaishyas earn out of their trading and business skills and so do the other class of the Society due to their ability in crafts). Chaturnaamapi varnaamsha dharma sanaatanah/ (Thus the Four Varnas are engaged in their own respective duties as per dharmas).
Samaamanya (Normal) Dharmas of husband and wife: Adushtaapatitaam bharyaam youvane yah parityajet, Sapta janma bhavet streetwam Vaidhavyancha punah punah/ (In case a husband abandons a youthful woman without any blemish, he would become a widow for successive births again and again). Daridram vyaddhitam murkham bhartaaram ya na manyate, Saa mrutaa jaayate vyaali vaidhavyamcha punah punah/ (In case a wife abandons a husband on account of poverty, disease, or idiocy, then she turns out to be a serpent or widow again and again. Patyo jeevita yaa naari uposhya vratamaacharet, Ayushyam harate bhartruh saa naari narakam vrajet/ (Even as a husband is alive, if a wife observes fasts and vratas without his knowledge, then the life span of her husband would be reduced). Yat paapam Brahma hatyaayaa dwigunam garbhapaatane, prayschittam natasyasti tasyaastyaago vidheeyate/ (Abortion is as doubly heinous as that of Brahama hatya which has no prayaschitta as cited above oreven otherwise! The only possible retribution would be rid of that woman by out casting or otherwise!) Na karyamaavasatyena naagnihotrena vaa punah, sa bhavetkarma chandaalo yastu dharma paraangmukhah/ (That house holder who has no respect for Dharma, especially if a Brahmana, is as fallen like the worst human being).Oagha vaataahatam beejam yathaa kshetreprarohati, Kshetri tallabhate beejam na beeji bhaagamarhati/ Tadwat parastreeyaa putrow dwou kundagolakou, Patyou jeevati kundah syaanmrite bhartaari golakah/ (Just as a seed thrown by fierce gale from one field to the neighbouring field the crop of that seed basically belongs to the neighboring woman only). Kubja vaamana shandeshu gadgadeshu jedeshu cha, jaatyaghne baadhire mukey na doshah parivedany/ (There is nothing wrong that a junior son marries earlier, in case an elder son happens to be a ugly, too short, stupid, impotent, eunuch, blind, deaf, dumb, etc). Also: Nashte mrite pravrajite kleeve chapatite patou, Panchaswaapatsu naarinaam patiranyo vidheeyate/ ( If one’s husband is lost for long, reckoned away for dead, turned as a Sanyasi, impotent, or immoral, then the woman concerned could rightfully select another person for wedding again). Mrite bhartaari yaanaari brahmacharye vyavasthitaa, Saa mritaa labhateswargam sadbrahmachaarinah/ (On the expiry of husband, if the woman maintains her celibacy, she on her death would reach heaven for sure!).
In reference to purification of house-hold material, kitchen utensils can be cleaned by unpolluted water and so also the yagjna and puja material. Rajasa shuddhyate naari vikalam ya na gacchati, Nadi vegena shuddhyeta lepo yadi uadi shudhyati/ (Females in courses are cleaned up by running flows of waters say of rivers or water bodies provided they are other wise not ill). Vaapi kupa tadaakeshu dushiteshu kathanchana, Uddrutya vai ghatastham panchagavyena shuddhyati/ (Tanks, wells, water reservoirs when look and smell, then hundreds of water pot fulls are thrown out and add mixes of Pancha gavyas or of cow products-milk, curd, ghee, dung and urine-be sprinkled into the wells and so on). Ashta varsha bhaved Gauri nava varshaa tu Rohini, Dasa varshaa bhavet Kanyaa ata urtharvam rajaswala/ (An eight year old girl is called Gauri or the Fair One, a ninth year old is known as Rohini or a cherry, a ten year aged is a Kanya or maiden and thereafter a Rajaswala). Prapte tu dwadashe varshe varsha ah kanyaam na prayacchati,Maasi maasi rajastasyaah pibanti pitarah swayam/ ( In case the Kanya is not married on attaining of age, then pitru devatas are required to consume the menses material). Maataa chiva Pitaa chiva jyeshtho bhataa tathaiva cha, Trayaste narakam yaanti drushtwaa kanyaa rajaswalaa/ (In case, the mother, father and the elder brother of the girl who has come of age still remains unmarried are destined to go to hell). Yah karotyekaraanetrena vrishaleesevanam dwijah, Sa bhaikshubhugjapannityasya tribhi varsher vishudyati/ (If a dwija or Brahmana-Kshatriya-Vaishya were to serve a low caste person in a night, then the atonement would be to beg alms and perform japa for three years!) Astam gate yadaa Suryesta nimna jatyaam patitam striyam, Sutikaam sprushate chaiva katham shudda vivardhheyate/ Jaata vedam suvarnamcha Somamargam vilokyacha, Brahmanaanugataschiva chaiva snaanam krutwaa vishuddhyati/ (If a dwija happens to touch a degraded person, a characterless woman or a woman in confinement especially in the nights or darkness, then the method of purification would be to look at Agni, Gold, Moon’s movement on the sky, follow a brahmana and take a Shuddhi snaana or bath). Spushtwaa rajaslaanyonyaham brahmani brahmani tathaa, Yavattishthenniraahaaraa triratraivena shuddhati/ (In case, two brahmana females in menses touch each other, they need to avoid bhojana three nights to be freed from Ashuddhi). In the event of two females in the periods, belonging to different varnas, the ‘shuddhi marga’ is to resort to varying types of kruccha vratas as prescribed.). Snaataa rajaswala yaa tu chaturthehani shuddhyati, kruyaadrajonivrittou tu Daivapitraaya karmacha/ (Those females on the fourth day of the periods are required to take Shuddhi Snaana and perform the normal duties to Devas and Pitru Devas as usual) Rogena yadrajah streenaamanvahantu pravartate, Naashuchih saa tatastena tat syaadwai kaarikam matam/ (For the reason of illness, in case the ‘rajotpatti’ persists, then too the Ashuchi Period time is stated to have terminated on the fouth day) Prathamehani chandali dwiteeya Brahma ghatini, Triteeye rahaki proktaa chaturthehani shuddhyati/ ( On the first day of the period the female is reckoned as a chandaali, on the second day as a Brahmacide, the third day as a washer woman and on the fourth day she gets purified). Aature snaanamutpanee dashakrutyodnyaaturh, Snatwaa snaatwaa sprushedenam tatah shudyet sa aaturah/ (In case a person is extremely ill, then another person who is heathy takes his snaana many times and then touches the person who is sick, then the latter would get far better!) Now the ways in which purification of metallic and other household items is achieved is as follows: bronze items like utensils are cleaned by ash powder normally unless spirituous material is not involved and in the case of the latter cleaning by fire and scraping the smoked layer with a sharp metal. Bronze items again when smelt by cows or sniffed by dogs or even by touched by low class persons lose their acceptability and rendered unworthy of reusage unless they are cleanedby ash several times. Aayase shwapasaarena seesasyaagnow viseshodhanam, Dantamayiswa tathaa shringa roupyam souvarnabhaajanam/ Mani paashaana sringascha etaan prakshaalayejjalaih, Paashaane tu punar-dhrushta reshaah shuddhirudaahyataa/ ( As regards iron-steel vessels are concerened, these need to be rubbed one against another and or better burnt in Fire; ivory, bone, horn, silver and gold, Ratnas, Precious stones and ivory articles concerned they are either exposed to fire and get melted while rock-made items a purified ny rubbed again). Earthern vessels are rendered clean by being burnt; paddy is cleaned by scouring; bamboo vessels, rags, linen, cotton clothing, woollen clothing, are purified by sprinkling of water; similarly leather and hide, grass of various kinds, wood, ropes etc. are purified by spinkling of water after sun drying. Bhumim spushtavaa gatam toyam aschaapyanyonya viprushah, Bhuktvocchishtam tathaa sneham nocchishtam Manurabraveet/ (Manu says that running water falling on the ground, flying saliva while in conversation with other albeit respectfully, remnant ghee and cooking oil is not impure!). When ever, ‘Madhuparka’ or clothing offered to the guests after bhojana as a gesture of respect, the remnant fruits, juices, tamboola or betel, etc.are never unclean or impure. Adushtaa santataa dhaaraa Vatoddhutaascha renavah, Striyo vriddhaascha baalaascha na dushyanti kadaachana/ (A continuous stream of water flow, dust by passing wind, women, elderly persons and children can never be considered as unclean). Desha bhange pravaase vaa vyaadhishu vyasaneshvapi, Rakshodevaswadehaadi pashchaaddharmam samaacharet/ (When there is a crisis in the country or in ‘pravasa’ or in exile, or in illness, or in a state of self control, or due to extreme difficulties, then one’s duty is of self-protection and ‘dharmaacharana’ be postponed for the time being!). Ye na kena cha dharmena mridunaa daarunen cha, Uddhareddeena maatmaanam samartho dharmamaacharet/ (Be it a hard or none too soft duty of dharma, it is essential to first pull up one self and get strong enough to practise Dharma). Aapatkaale tu sampraapte shouchaachaaram na chintayet, Swayam samuttaret paschaat swastho dharama samaacharet/ (Whenever there is an emergency, do not get concerned regarding the practice of ‘Shoucha’ and ‘Aachara’ till such time that one gets stabilized to normalcy). But this indeed is not an escape route!
Grihastu dayaa yukto Dharmamevaanuchintayet, Poshya vargaartha siddhyartham nyaayavartaa su buddhiman/ (It is expected of Grihasthaas or house holders to be always engaged in compassion, just conduct, and observance of Virtue as also the upkeep of the family members on the path of worthy upbringing, training and of justice). Nyaayoparjita vittena kartavyam hyatma rakshanam, Anyaayena tu yo jeevet sarva karma bahishkrutah/ ( The grihasthi is never ever to deviate from the practice of living with well earned money within his means and maintain his family with uprightness being far aloof of undeserving temptations of life). Agnichit Kapila Satree Rajaa Bhikshur Mahodadhih, Drushta maatraah punantyete tasmaan pashyettu nityashah/ (Even the visions of those who observe nitya Agni homas, Kapila cows, performers of Satra Yagnya, kings and nobilities, Bhikshus or those who renounce the worldly activities and the profound Oceans would inspire and motivate such right minded persons). Arani Krishna marjaalam chandanam Sumanim ghritam, Tilaan, Krishnaajinam, Chhagam gruhey chaitaani rakshayet/ (Every house holder is advised to keep an Arani or double stones with which to create fire, black cat, chandanam, good quality gem stone, ghee, tilas, black deer, thick butter milk and a goat for the security and auspiciousness in his house). Also bulls and cows are of immense benefit and even a place to let a pair of these stand if given as a charity to a good Brahman would bestow the fruits of warding the most heinous sin of Brahma hatya perpetrated by way of mere thought, speech and the worst still by a deed! In fact such a daana if given to a very poor and helpless but ‘Vedaadhyaayi’would instantly add several years of healthy and contented on going life itself! But he who mismanages to gain houses, fields or even barren land by foul means from another party would not recompense by acts of digging wells, performing yagjnas, and giving away charity of several cows! Even a touch of a low caste person, a woman of a just born child, a woman during the menses period and a fallen woman would warrant impurity for two, four, six, and eight days respectively. Tatah saannidhyamatrena sachailam snaanamaacharet, Snatwaavalokayet Suryamajnanaat sprushyateyyadi/ (Even going across such a person requires bathing with the dress as worn and thereafter look at and greet Surya deva.) Drinking water from a well, or a water body straight into the mouth without using palf fulls would land up the person as a dog in the next birth. A person out of anger shouts and declares that at his wife was unfit for him even privately and then once again seeks to approach her for rapprochment, then there should be a public apology to remove the blemish; this is equally applicable both ways! Swaantah kruddhastamondho vaa khsutpipaasaa bhayaadhritah, Daanam punyamakrutwaa cha praayaschittam dinatrayam/ (When a person gives away a charity to a quality Brahmana, while in a mental frame of tiresomeness, anger, ignorance, hunger, thirst, or under compulsion, then such a charity would be no only ineffective but warrants a three day prayaschitta or sin retriever as prescribed below); the payaschitta includes Nadi Snaana and Brahmana bhojana and Go daana. Duraachaarasya Viprasya nishidhaacharanasya cha, Annam bhuktwaa dwijah kuryaad dinamekam abhojanam/ (In fact any Brahmana who becomes aware that he has committed a sin, should organize a Brahmana bhojana but obsereve a day’s ‘upavasa’ for rectification). Sadaacharasya Viprasya tathaa Vedanta vaadinah, Bhuktaannam muchyate paapaada- horaatrantu vai narah/ (If a Duraachaari Brahmana or the sinful Brahmana due to any type of sins, regrets his sin, observes a day-night abstinence of food besides entertains with food to a sadachara Brahmana and gets him contented, then the former should be free from all blemishes!).
Vyasa Smriti adds further dimensions to Grihasthaashrama Dharmas as follows: Grihashramaat paro dharmo naasti naasti punah punah, Sarva tirtha phalamtasya yayoktam yastu paalayet/ (This truism needs to be stressed again and again that there could be no better dharma as evidenced in Grihastha –ashrama. Those who observe these Ashrama Dharmas with conscience are rewarded with the fruits of arva Tirtha Darshana) Guru bhakto bhrutya poshi dayaavaannasuyakah, Nitya japi cha homi cha Satya vaadi jitendriyah/ Swadaaro yasya santoshaha paradaaraa nivartanam, Apavaadopi no yasya tasya tirthaphalam gruhe/ (Those grihastis who pay great attention to Guru and elders, take full care of servants with sincerity, essentially of kindly disposition, being of non-complaining nature, observing nitya gayatri japa homas, satyavaadi or highly truthful, self restrained of his physical limbs, fully contented with his own wife and respectful of other females, and of impeccable chatacter and reputation are doubtless the recipients of the Sarva Tirtha phala without visiting none and being totally home bound) Para daaraan Paradravyam harate yo dine dine, Sarvatirhaabhishekena paapam tasya na nashtati/ (Those grihastis who have no desire for other females and other’s money at any time make the Sarvatirtha-abhhisheka punya into insignificance!) Griyashu sananeeyeshu sarvatirtha phalam tatah, Annadasya trayo bhaagaah karthaa bhaagena lipyate/ (In those house holds where Soma-Savana and other yagjnas are duly and daily executed the Sarva tirtha phalas are reaped readily and totally. Those house holds which provide Anna daana always secure three fourths of the rewards while who perform other duties of Grihastas the rest of it.) Pratishrayam paadashoucham Brahmanaancha tarpanam, Na paapam samprushetasya Balim Bhikshaam dadaati yah/ (Those house holders who inivite Brahmanas, wash their feet, offer ‘neeraajana’ while standing with utmost esteem and serve bhojan and satisfy them along with other services would be completely unreachable for any kind of sins.) Paadodakam paada ghritam deepamannam pratishrayam, Yo dadaati Brahmanebhyo nopasarpatitam Yamah/ (Those grihastis who wash the feet of Brahmanas with water, ghee, deepa nirajana, Anna and restful hospitality shall indeed be out of bounds by Yama dharma Raja even!) Vipra paadodaa vilannaa yaavat tishthati modini, Taavat pushkara patreshu pibanti Pitaromritam/ (Till such time the ‘paadokaka’or the water washed by both the feet of the Brahmana keeps wet, the lotus feet of the Grihasti’s Pitru Devatas would be enjoying ‘Amrita paana’!) Yatphalam kapilaa daane Kartikyaam Jyeshtha Pushkare, Tatphalam Rishayah shreshtaa vipraanaam paadashouchane/ (Hey great Rishis! The Punya that would accrue from the Pushkara Tirtha Snaana and Go daana on a Kartika Pournami day would approximate the paada-prakshalana of the Brahmana guest of the grihastha respectfully performed by the latter!) Swaagatena -agnayah preetaa aasanena shatakratuh, Pitarah paada shouchenaannaadyena Prajaapatih/ (The grihasti welcoming the Brahmana-atithi itself would have pleased Agni Deva, the guest being seated comfortably would have made Indra Deva happy too, Pitru Devatas would have been delighted by the ‘Paada- prakshalana’ and indeed Prajaapati himself would have been contented by the Brahmana’s contentment with the bhojana!) Maata Pitrou param tirtham Gangaa gaavo visheshitah, Braahmanaat Parama tirtham na bhutam na bhavishyati/(The grihasti would normally consider his father and mother as Punya Tirthas and especially so the Go Maatas or cows; but Brahmana as the Atithi is indeed the Parama Tirtha as never in the past nor in the future times!) Indriyaani vesheekritya Griha eva vasonnarah, Tatra tasya Kurukshetram Naimisham Pushkaraanicha/ (Any person might as well stay in one’s own home if only he keeps his physical parts and mental faculties are controlled utmost; indeed his own home is as good then since that itself is Kurukshetra,or Naimisha or Pushkar like Tirthas!) Gangadwaaramcha Kedaaram sannihiti tathaiva cha, Etaani Sarva Tirthaani krutwaa Paapaih pramuchyate/ (His own home then would be as near and purifying as Haridwar, Kedarnath and such other Tithas since that indeed is the singular sin destroying Tirtha) Varnaam ashramaanaan chatur Varnasya bho Dwijaah, Daan dharmam pravakshyaami yathaa Vyaasena bhaashitam/ ( O Dwijas! This is the moral that any person of the Chatur Varnaas and Ashramas should follow and observe asVyasa emphasizes viz. that one’s own home be considered as any Tirtha, provided he or she could control one’s own faculties!)b Yaddadaati visishtebhyo yacchaashnaati diney diney, Taccha vittamayaham manye shesham kasyaabhi rakshati/ (It is only that amount of money or wealth which is given away in daanas or donations as also that which meets the daily requirements his family; but whatever is surpus or hoarded may be taken care of by Almighty alone!) Yaddadaati yadashnaati tadeva Dhanino dhanam, Anye mrutasya kreedani daaraarapi dhanairapi/ (Whatever money that is actually spent on the needs of the family members apart from that spent on daana dharmas is called the genuine money, but the excess of that money which is left behind one’s death is indeed squandered endlessly on the family’s playful activities since that part of the amount is sure to be misused!) Kim dhanena karishyanti dehaanoti gataayushah, yadwardhviyatumicchantarastacchariram- ashaaswatam/ (What indeed is possibly saved for besides one’s own upkeep sustenance; beyond the needs of the anticipated family needs, what is that hoarded amount useful for there after!) Ashasvataani gaatraani vibhavo naiva shasvatah, Nityam sannihito mrityuh kartavyo dharma sangrahah/ (Sharira is indeed transitory, the money is not permanent either, death is round the corner and as such one should endeavour to earn as much Dharma as possible) Yadi naama na dharmaaya na kaamaaya na keertaye, Yat parityajya gantavyam taddhanam kim na deeyate/ (If money is not earned as per Dharma, that can not meet fulfillments nor good name and fame; what indeed is the excess money earned any way unless it cannot be donated in daanas and improve the ‘Punya’ accounts!) Jeevanti jeevite yasya Vipraa mitraani bandhavaah, Jeevanti saphalam tasya Atmaartham ko na jeevati/ (Indeed it is that life which is worthwhile as would help Brahmanas, relatives and friends; beyond that consideration as for the self alone would smack of selfishness!) Pashavopi hi jeevanti kevalaatmodarambharaah, Kim kaayena suguptena balinaa chirajeevinaa/ ( If one ekes life for self sustenance alone, then he or she is considered as an animal only; what is the purpose of that kind of animal life even if lived for long!) Adaata Purushastyaagi dhanam samtyajya gacchati, Daataaram krupanam manye mrutopyartham na muchyati/ (A person who would not perform Daana has the psyche of being a wise one since he feels that he leaves behind that money and that is wiser since that much of money would be available with him, feeling self- deceptively though- that would be as his carry forward in his next life, anyway!) Praananaashastu kartavyo yah kritaartho na so mritah, Akrutaardhatu yo mrityupraaptah kara samohi sah/ (Those who leave the life are indeed well deserved and fulfilled once they have the satisfaction of having lived contented and indeed such persons are acclaimed as Amarajeevis or persons everliving! But, those who merely exist without ‘satkamas, are as bad as donkeys!) Anaahateshu yaddatam yaccha duttamaya -achitam, Bhavishyati yugasyaantah tasyaantato na bhavishyati/ (The kind of daana that is given by special invitation and that which is given being when asked for has considerable difference till the end of yugas but there is no end of the concept of daana ever!) Mritavatsaa yathaa goushcha trishnaa lobhena duhyute, Parasparasya daanaani loka yatraa na dharamatah/ (The kind of daana given to a desperate person just as given to a dying calf or a cow is not genuine and not for the sake of Dharma-apparently for the donor’s motives!) Adrushte chaashubhe daanam bhoktaa chaiva na drushyate, Punaraagamanam naasti tatra daanamanantakam/ (That kind of daana with the apprehension of having to face inauspiciousness on the part of the donor is of artificial nature, but a ‘Nishkaama Daana’ with no expectation of return desire is stated to be of lasting value, especially when the daana karta would request for ‘Punaraagamana’ or to say, ‘please come again’) Maataa pitrushu yadyadyaad bhraatrushu shvashureshucha, Jaayaapatyeshu yaddadyaad sonantah swarga samkramah/ (The charity that is provided to parents, brothers and father- in- law, own wife and children would pave the way for heavens) Pituh shatagunam daanam sahasra, Maaturuchyate, Bhaginyaam shata sahasram sodare dutta -makshayam/(If the charity that is given to father is hundred folded, that given to mother is thousand folded, to sisters- it is of a lakh times more, and to brothers is countless!) Kinchitvedamayam paartam kinchit partam tapomayam, Yasya chaiva gruhe mukho doore chaapigunaanvitah, Gunaanvitaaya daatavyam naasti Brahmanaatikramenacha/ (Referring to ‘Paartaapaatra’ daana, or the nature of deserving or otherwise of charites, Vyasa Maharshi states that some who deserve highly are Veda Swarupas or the embodiments of Vedas, or Tapomaya Rishis and some could even be stupid Brahmanas or well qualified; in any case even those Brahmanas who are ill qualified may not be ruled out for daanas) Devadravya vinaashena Brahmana haranenicha, Kulaanya kulataam yanti Brahmanaatikramena cha/ (In the case of stealing the offerings to Devas, or the charities offerered to Brahmanas as also to despise both Devas and Brahmanas, actions of such persons would instantly deserve ‘Kula bhrashtatwa’ or demotion of his or her status in the Society) Brahmanaatikramo naasti Vipre Veda vivarjite, Ujjwanata- magnimutsrujjya na hi bhasmani hyuyate/ ( Veda heena Brahmana becomes despicable just as one performs homa to bhasma instead of to a full flame) Sannikrushta madheeyaanam Brahmanam yo vyatikramet, Bhojane chaiva daane cha hanyat tripurusham kulam/(Those in respect of insulting Veda -paathi Brahmanas at bhojana and daana are destined to get cursed for three generations in their kula!) Yathaa kaashtamayo hasto yathaa charma mayo mrigah, Yascha Vipronadheeyaanastrayaste naama dharkaah/ (Indeed those Brahmanas who are not used to Veda Pathana are just like elephants made of wood or stuffed skin made deer, as they are not genuine Brahmanas) Samamabraahmane daanam dwigu- nam Braahmanabruve, Sahasraguamaachaarye hyaanantam Vedaaarage/ (The reward given in daana to an ‘Abraahmanya’ or he who does not deserve to be called a Brahmana is perhaps very nominal, but to him claiming to be a Brahmamna due to his birth is minimal, but the daana given to an Acharya is far better by thousand times, but to aVeda Vidwan, the daana punya is stated to be endless) Agnihotri tapaswi chaVedaadhyaapayechha yah, Sakalpam sarahasyancha tamaachaarya prachakshate/( He who is a practitioner of Agni homas, a tapaswi or daily Meditator, well conversant of Kalpa- Aranyaka Upanishads and of confidential mantras as also a teacher of Vedas is known as an Acharya.) Ishtabhih Pashu bandhaischa chaaturmaasyaistathiva cha, Agnishtomaadi bhiryagjnaina cheshtam sa Ishtawaan/ (He who is an expert of performing Ishtis like Pashu bandha, Chaturmasya and so on, Agnishtomaadi Yagnas and others is titled as an Ishtimaan or well versed with such Sacred Homa) Meemamsate cha yo Vedaan Shadbhirangaih savitsaraihi,Itihaasa Puraanaani sa bhavedpaaragah/( It is he who is described as the Veda Pararaga who besides Veda Jnaana is also versatile in the Six Vedangas of Siksha, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Chhanda, Jyotisha and Kalpa as also Meemaamsa; he should also have the knowledge of Puranas and Itihasa) Brahmanah sa bhaveccheva Devaanaamapi Daivatam, Prakshanchaaiva lokasya Brahmatejo hi kaaranam/ (Such a Brahmana is indeed a Deva Deva or the evidence of, and reason for, Brahma teja in the universe). Brahmanasya mukham kshetram nishkarkaramakuntakam, Vaapayetatra beejaani saa krushih saarvakaamiki/(Brahmana’s bright face is like a pebble free and thornfree agricultural field in which human beings themselves are the seeds to be sown and the resultant crops are like the various desires fulfilled by them) Sukshetre vaapayedbeejam supatre daapayedwanam, Sukshetre cha Supaatre cha kshiptam naiva vidhshyati/ (The seeds must be sown in ideal and fertile fields only and in such fields the seeds or various forms of yields or prosperity emerge) Vidya vinaya sampanne Brahmane gruhamaagate, Kreedanyoshadhayah sarvaa yaasyaamah paramaam gatim/(It is only in the households of Brahmanas that Vidya and Vinaya or knowledge and discipline could thrive and by the entry of oushadhis or anna / food would become playful and lead to total fulfillment) Nashtashouche vrata- bhrashthe vipre veda vivarjite Deeyamaanam rudayatyannam bhayaadhvai duyshkrutam krutam/( Those Brahmanas who are ‘apavitraas’ or of unclean physiques and characteristics, who are of depravity and meanness, who are Vedaheens and least enlightened are prone to fear, sadism and timidity). Vedapurna mukham vipram subhuktamapi bhojayet, na cha murkham niraaharam shaddraatra mupavaasinam/ (A Veda Brahmana only richly deserves fulfillment of food, instead of feeding a ‘murkha’ or an idiot who starves even for six nights!) Yasya gehe sadaashnanti havyaani tridivoukasah, Kavyaani chaiva Pitarah kimbhutamadhikam tatah/ (Who else is called an ideal Brahmana in whose house ‘Devata havya shesha’ and ‘Pitru kavya shesha’are eaten!) Vedalaangala krushteshu dwija shreshtheshu satu cha, Yatpuraa patitam beejam tasyaiaah sasyasampadah/ (During the days of yore, the seeds that Brahmana‘Sajjanaas’ of virtue sowed by the ‘veda swarupa hala’ or tillers of Vedic features yielded ‘sasya sampada’ or the opulence of rich crops) Shateshu jaayate shutrah sahasreshu cha panditah, Vaktaa shata sahasreshu daataa bhavati vaa na vaa/ (It is probable that among hundreds of persons, there might be a valiant and intrepid person born, among thousands there might be a Vidwan Pandita, among lakh of them an orator of fame, but nobody knows as to how many of persons that a ‘Daata’ (donor) or one with the great qualities of munificence and selflessness might emerge!) Na raney vjayahacchuroh adhyanaanna chapanditah, Na vaktaa vaakpatutvena na daataa chaartha daanata/ (By winning a battle one does to become a hero of all battles, a Shastri who teaches Shastras can become a Vidwan of all Vidyads, a person with facility of expresson cannot be acclaimed as a great orator cannot, but he who sincerely and selflessly donates with respect and in humility is indeed designated as a data!) Indriyaanaam jaye shuro, Dharmacharita panditah, Hitapriyoktibhir vaktaa daataa sammmana daanatah/ (A person who possesses physical and mental control is a truly gallant hero, a meticulous practitioner of Dharma or Vrtue is a genuine Vidwan, a soft spoken convincer in arguments and persuader of proactive actions is a real Orator, and he who donates as per the reciever’s needs and necessities with respect and polteness without seeking a return is an authentic data!). Yadye kapatam krutyaam vishamam dadaatisnehaadbhaadwaa vaarthahetoh, Vedeshu drushtam Rishibhiscgha geetam tad brahmahatyaam Muniyo vadanti/ (Any charity given out of compulsions of money returns, or fear, or publicity and providing Brahmanas excellent bhojana by way of ‘saha pankti’or with equal status is as motivated as committing ‘Brahma hatya’ as stated in Vedas and amplified by Rishis!) Upare vaapitam beejam bhinnabhaandeshu goduham, Hutam bhasmaani havyancha murkham daanamashaswatam/ (The seeds sown on the top layer of soil, collecting milk from a cow’s udder into a broken vessel, the ‘ahutis’ or ghee homas offered to the ashes of the agni kunda, are as wasteful as giving ‘daana’ to a ‘Murkha’) Amritam Brahmaanenna daridram Kshatriyasa ha, Vaishaannenena heentwa heenajaatenna narakam vrajet/ (The bhojana served by a Brahmana is like Amrita, that which is served by Kshatriyas leads to daridrata or poverty, the food served by Vaishyas leads to meanness, and that served by the low class is as bad as ‘naraka prapti’) Pankti bhedi vrithaa paaki nityam Brahmana nindakah, Adeshi Veda vikrataa panchaite Brahma ghaatakaah/( Those who maintain distinct sections of the guests in their homes as per richness or commonality, who cook for one’s own bhojana without sharing with others, who are habitual offenders of Brahmanas, who seels to boss over for no reason, who sell Veda Scriptures for money, and teach Vedas or Scriptures for monetary considerations are to be called as the Five ill-famed Brahma Hatyaaris) Idam Vyaasa matam nitya madhyatvam prayatnatah, Etadyuktaachaaravatam patanam naiva vidyate/ (This theory propounded by Vyaasa Maharshi should be always read and understood properly. Those who follow these precepts would never ever be downgraded in their lives!)
Grihini Dharmas: In the event of married (or unmarried) women desirous of shortening their hair due to reasons of religion the head hair can be shortened by two inches; for example there is a dutiful binding called ‘Veni Samhara’at tirtha pradeshas like Gaya, where a husband himself performs the vrata by scissoring the hair likewise. But widows ought to shave the head as per ancient ‘aachaara’. They are forbidden to sleep in the central place of their homes or alone in far off places. They are also restricted to neither accompany their husbands to agricultural fields, nor visit without husbands or unaccompanied with close relatives to cattle sheds, river beds, sea shores and forests. It is preferred that they perform Vratas in their own homes with their husbands. Tirtha yatras, temple visits or religious places or congregations unaccompanied with husbands are a mere waste. Similarly giving away danaas, performing any activity like homas, vratas etc. are futile. Yet, any activity related to Dharma with motives of vengeance, harmful to others or with show off and pride shall indeed recoil in couse of time. At the same time, a prayer or vrata or of spiritual significance performed with physical and mental cleanliness would concentration, faith and dedication would indeed yield contentment and fulfillment. Even a Kamya Vrata or Nishkama Karma performed with commitment shall indeed be reciprocated proportionately while of course kamya vratas lead to desired results while nishkama vratas add to the accounts of Punya!
Referring to the tendencies of contacts with men in general and those males other than husbands in particular, Paraashara Smriti lists out Ashta Vidha Maithuna viz. Smarana or thoughts, keertana or praising, keli or being playful, prekshana or passing looks with desire at the opposite party, Guhya bhashana or whispers, Sankalpa or a kind of resolve, Athyavasaaya or trials for contact from a distance, Kriya nirvritti or intense desire, Vaak prerepana or inciting with small conversation, Udreka or infatuation, steady vision, rahasya sambhashana or secret conversation, Ubhaya prerepana or mutual physical contact, Resolve or the decision to mate and finally the copulation. These misdemeanors too would qualify for atonements!
Some Prayaschittas: Urthwaryocchishtamaghah antarikshareer mrutao tathaa, Krucchatrayam prakurveetaashouchaarane tatha/ (In the event of a death who dies as a result of illness due to the failure of body parts of upper or lower limbs, the witnessing dwijas present at the time of death not placing the dead body down to earth are required to perform three Kruccha Vratas as a penalty.) Krucchhe devyayutanchaiva praanaayaama shatatrayam, Punya teerthem naardra shirah snaanam dwadasha sankhyayaa, Dwiyojanam tirha yaatraa krucchamevam prakalpitam/ (The Kruccha Vrata comprises Gayatri japa ten thousand times, a dozen snaanas with shaven head in Punya Tirthas atleast of two yojana radius). Grihasthah kaamatah kruyadretasah sechanam bhuvi, sahasrantu japerdevyaah praanaayaamaistribhih sahaa/ (If a grihasti Brahmana out of extreme passion spills his virility on the ground, then he is required to atone by three hundred pranayama and thousand times of Gayatri japa). Chaturvedyopapannasu Vidhivad Brahma ghatake, Samudra seta gamana prayaschittam vinirdeshet/ (A Brahmana who is an erudite pandita of Four Vedas commits Brahma Hatya or killing of a co-Brahmana, then he is required to pay a visit to Sethu bandhana at Rameshwara Kshetra and perform the Prayaschitta as prescribed). Setu bandhapathe bhikshaam chaturvarnyaat samaacharet, Varjayitvaa vikarmasthaamh chatropaana dwivarjitah/ Aham dushruta karma vai mahaa paataka kaarakah, Grihadwaareshu tishthaami bhikshaarthi Brahma ghaatakah/ ( All those who have committed the worst of crimes of killing a learned Brahmana is required to visit Rameswara or the Setu Bandhana Kshetra and beg alms without foot wear or umbrella and announce himself shouting : Sir/madam, I am a Brahmana killer and am standing at your door step for alms for expiation). Thereafter, the offender Brahmana killer having walked begging to Setu all the way halting at goshalaas, villages and town ships, crossing streams, rivers, tirthas and so on overnights without break and after the Setu visit with prayers to return if alive!). Punah pratyaagato veshma vaasanaartha –mupa, saputrah saha bhrutaischa kuryaad Brahmana bhojanam/ (On return if at all, Brahmana bhojana be organised accompanied by the entire family and be blessed). Savanastaam striyam hatvaa Brahmahyatya vratam charet, Madyapascha dwijah krutyaaninadeem gatwaa samudragaam/ (For killing a woman engaged in the performance of vrata, the atonement is as per the procedure of Brahma hatyaa sin, while if involved in drinking intoxicants, the expiation would be bathing in a river flowing into the Ocean). Chandraayane tatashcheerny krutyaad Brahmana bhojanam, Anangut sahitaam gaancha dadyaadvipreshu dakshinaam/ (Thereafter, Chandraayana vrata, Brahmana bhojana and daana of a cow and bull with dakshina to a Pandita Brahmana be provided). Madya paana Prayaschittam: Madyapascha dwijah kuryaannadim gatwaa Samudragaam, Chaandraane –tatasksheerna kuryadbrahmana bhojanam/ Anadutsahitaangam cha dadyaat Vipreshu dakshinaam/ (Dwijas who resort to Madyapaana of draksha, kurjuraadi juices with fermentation have to perform bathing in a Sacred River and the Ocean besides observe Chandraayana Vrata and Brahmana bhojana dakshas).
p style=”text-align: justify;”>Self-confession of sins:Self-confession of sins commited: As an important component of ‘Dharmaacharana’vide Ashtamodhyaya of Parashara Smriti, ‘Sad- Brahmanas’ are by themselves confess about their own sins: Vedavedanga vidushaam Dharma Shastra vijaanataam, Swakarmarata vipraanaam swakam paapam nivedayet/ (Those superior and distinguished Brahmanas who are experts in Veda Vedangas and well versed in Dharma Shastras and ideal practitioners of Dharma Shastra, do declare themselves voluntarily to co-Brahmanas about their own shortcomings and misdeeds! Krutwaa paapam na gruhet guhyamaanam vivardhate, Swalpam vaatha prabhutam vaa Dharmavidbhyo nivedayet/ (Whether the sin committed is minor or major, one’s own conscience demands to confess to Vidwans who in turn would judge its intensity). After all: Te hi paapey krute veda hantaaraschiva paapmanaam, Vyadhistasya yathaa Budddhimanto rujaapahaah/ (To enable the nature of illness, the patient who is affected would indeed have to convey the details of it and similarly the Karta of the sin committed has to describe its details to enable the Vidwat Sabha to prescribe the remedial medicine!) Praayashchitte samutopanne lajjaaman Satya paraayanah, Muhuraarjava sampannah shuddhim gacchet maanavah/ ( Once such a virtuous and forthright person who owns a sin fulfills the prayaschitta or atonement is performed and condoned after exercising it, he becomes far cleaner person once again!) Dharma Parishad: Definition of a true Brahmana who is qualified to be a member of a Dharma Parishad to determine the kind of Prayaschitta to the sinners among Dwijas or Brahmana-Kshatriya-Vaishyas: Saavitrayaashchaapi Gayatraah Sandhyopaastyagni karyaho, Agjnaanaat krishikartaaro Brahmana naama dhaarakah/ (Without the worship of Savita Devata comprising Gayatri mantra, Sandhyopaasana and Yagjna karma, a person who merely exists and carries on by eking livelihood is a Brahana by birth only). Graama –sthaanam yathaa shunyam yathaa kupastu nirjalah, Yathaa hutamanagnow cha amantro Brahmanas-tathaa/ (Like there is a dwelling home in a village without inhabitants, like there are wells without water, like fire without homa karya, so is a Brahmana without Mantras) Yathaa shandophalah sreeshu, yathaa gourushara phalaa, Yathaa cha aagjnephalam daanam tathaa Vipronruchophalah/ (Just as a ‘napumsaka’ among women, a useless fruit called ‘Vaagjna gao’ among fruits, a valuable daana to a stupid, so are Brahmanas without the Ruchas or stanzas of Vedas) Chitram karma yathaanekairangouru-namulyate shanai, Brahmanyamapi tadvat syaat saskaararairvidhi purvakam/ ( Just like drawing a picture and embellishing it with appropriate colour combinations gradually, a Brahmana too evolves with formal ‘samskaaras’ into a glorious and charming flower!) Prayaschittam prayacchanti ye dwijaanaama dharakaah, Te dwijaahpaapakarmaanah sametaa arakam yayuh/ (Those so called Brahmanas for name sake tenders prayaschitta to other ignorant persons go to hell together!) Ye pathanti dwijaa vedam Panchendriya rataashcha ye, Trailokyam dhaarayanyete panchendriyarataashrayaah/ (Those genuine Brahmanas who teach Vedas and are constantly engaged in performing ‘PanchaYagnas’ and control their own ‘Panchendriyas’ are those who bear the brunt of Three Lokas!) Charurvedyo vikalpi cha anga vidharma paalakah, Prapashchaashramino mukhyaah parishad syudashaavaraah/ (He who is an exponent of Four Vedas, Meemaamsa Darshana Vidwan, Vedanga vetta, Dharma paalaka is indeed the one qualified to be a proper member of the Parishad). The announcement of whatever prayaschitta is decided by the parishad needs however to be made by the King. Praayaschittam sadaa dadyad devataayatanaagratah, Atmaanam paavayet pashchaajjyapan vai vedamaataram/ (Normally, there is a place earmarked to announce ‘prayaschitta nirnayas’ announced by the Royalty as approved by the Dharma Parishad. The affected party is made to be seated by reciting Gayatri Mantra). Sashikham vapanam krutwaa trisandhyaamavagaahanam, Gavaam goshthe vasedraatrou diva taah sumanovrajet/ (Even as retaining the tuft, the dwija concerened is made to bathe in a river or water flow nearby and having stayed in a Goshaala or a cow shed is then followed by othere to the temple premises. Now the prayaschitta for ‘Go Hatya’ would be ‘Prajaapatya’: Govadhasyaanurupena Praajaapatyam vinirdeshaat, Prajaapatyantu yatkruccham vibhajettacchaturvidham/ (Praajaapatya Kruccha Vrata is distributed in four ways) Ekaahameka bhaktaashi ekaaham nakta bhojanah, Ayaachitaa shyekamaharekaaham maaruta aashanah/ (Eat onyle once a day, the next day eat only in the nights, one day eat whateve is available without asking, and on the ne next only Vaayu bhakshana or nothing at all!); this is the first kind of Praajaapatya krucchha. Dinadwayam chaika bhakto dwidinam nakta bhojanah, Dinadwayamayaachi syaada dwidinam marutaashanah/ (Only simple cooked cereal on two days, on two days nakta bhojanam or evening such meal, two days what ever is available without asking for and the next two days only vayu bhakshana or simply nothing at all except vayu bhojana).Tridinam chaika bhaktaashi tridinamnakta bhojanah, Dina trayamayaachi syaatra dinam maarutaashanah/( Eating three days of cooked cereal, three additional days of nakta bhojana, three additionl days of available and unsolicited food and on three days further). Chaturahantweka bhaktaashi charurah nakta bhojanah, chaturdinamachaachi syaacchaturaham maarutaashanah/ (Four days of cooked cereals, four evening such meal, four days of unsolicited food and four days of vaayu bhakshana in a row); these are the four kinds of Praajapatya krucchha vidhi. Praayas chittey tatashccheerney kruyyad brahmana bhojanam, Vipaaya dakshinaam dadyaat pavitraani japed dwijah/ (On the completion of the Prayaschitta procedure, Vipras are required to be treated with a feast, ‘dakshina taamboolas’ are tendered and thus dwijas attain purification finally).