Stories describing the implied messages of Bhatavad Gita Chapters

Shri Krishna asked Arjuna to fight the Battle of Kurukshetra as that was the Kshatriya Dharma (Duty of a Kshatriya) and dedicate all actions and results to Bhagavan, as the latter was the Cause of every action, the Causation or the basis of action and the Causer or the Creator of the Cause. Bhagavan defined that out of the Eighteen ‘Adhyayas’ or Chapters of Bhagavad Gita, five Adhyayas constituted five of His faces, five Adhyayas his ten hands, one Adhyaya was his belly, and two were his feet.  Padma Purana asssured that intelligent persons who read one Adhyaya of Gita a day, or half of it, or a quarter of it or even a Stanza at least would pave way to Mukti and cited the example of Susharma  who was no doubt a Brahmana but a chronic sinner; he did neither ‘dhyana’ nor ‘Japa’ nor even Atithi Seva or Service to Guests; on the other hand, he was a drunkard, meat-eater and a womaniser. One day, he died of a snake-bite and after suffering several Narakas and births as the retribution of his sins was born as a bull and served under an oil extractor for many years died of hard work and exaustion. A few kind persons contributed prayed for its salvation and among them was a Veshya (Prostitute) who donated some ‘punya’on her account. In the rebirth the bull was born as a Brahmana in the same village as a ‘Jatismara’ or with the memory of the previous birth. He located the Veshya and asked her as to which Punya she donated to the dead bull. She said that she bought a parrot which used to mutter  a stanza and that gave a soothing effect. The Brahmana learnt from his powers that the parrot learnt the stanza from the cage in which a Rishi stayed in his Ashram but a hunter stole the parrot and sold it to the Veshya. On reaching the Rishi, the Brahmana was told that the Stanza that the parrot learnt was from the First Chapter of Gita!

A Vedic Pandit Deva Sharam of Purandarapura of Dakshina Bharata was anxious to learn ‘Tatwa Gyana’and approched a ‘Mahatma’ (Great Learned Person) in this connection. The Mahatma directed the pandit to a Goat Keeper called Mitravan in a forest who was seated on a rock on the banks of a river bed nearby. Mitravan nattated to Deva Sharma about his experience of a tiger attacking a group of goats; while all the goats fled away, one remained as though it invited the tiger to eat it up. The tiger asked the goat as to why it also did not run away as other goats did. The goat asked as to why the tiger did not pounce on it and the tiger replied that its hunger vanished suddenly. Both the tiger and the goat asked a Mahatma who in turn referred both the animals to a Vanara Raja (Monkey). The latter replied that there was a highly religious Brahmana named Sukarna who meditated at a Shiva temple nearby for several years and that he should be asked as to why the tiger did not suddenly lose appetite and did not pounce on the goat which was readily willing to eat it up. Sukarna replied that there was a ‘Maha Purusha’ or a Great Saint inside the temple and when he (Sukarna) requseted him to teach ‘Tatwa Gyan’ or  Self-Realisation, the Maha Purusha asked him to read an inscription on a rock outside the temple which stated : Karmanyevaadhi kaarastey maa phaleshu kadaachana, maa karmaphalaa heturbhuh maa tey sangostwa karmani/  (Partha! You have freedom only to perform your duty; the rest is not relevant to you; but you should perform the duty without expecting returns and rewards! Bhagavan further clarified that a ‘Tatwa Gyani’ or He seeks Self-Realisation and a ‘Sthita Pragna’or he with stable conscience  has to be one who treats happiness or sorrow with eqanimity, without desire, fear, or anguish: Duhkeshwanu dwignamanaah Sukheshu  vigataspruhah, Veeta raaga bhayakrodhah sthidheermuniruchyatey/  Thus the chain of Deva Sharma-the Mahatma- Mitravan the goat-keeper-the Tiger and the Goat-the Vanara Raja-Sukarna-and the Maha Purusha revealed the Message of Tatwa Gyan which simply stated that one should practise one’s own duty and Tatwa Gyan would unfold itself! This indeed is the message in the Second Chapter of Bhagavad Gita.

The Third Chapter titled Karma Yoga gives the Message that ‘Swadharma’ or one’s own duty needs to be followed at any cost, even if the Dharma of others is attractive: Shreyan swadarmo vigunah paradharmatswanushthaat, Swadarmey nidhanam shreyayah paradharmo bhayaapah/ A Brahmana named Jada practised ‘Vaishya Dharma’ or the profession of a businessman, amassed considerable wealth, became a victim of vices, desired to amass more money, travelled a lot,  was killed by a gangof robbers , finally became a Pretatma (Goblin).and stayed on tree. Jada’s son who was a dutiful Brahmana went out in search of his father and having learnt that his father was killed by robbers proceeded to Varanasi and stayed under the same tree coincidentally overnight and before sleeping recited the above Stanza of Gita. Instantly, the father in the form of Pretatma appeared after liberation and was taken away by an air-plane to Vaikuntha and asked the son to proceed to Varanasi and in the course of Shraddha recite the Third Chapter of Gita so that the forefathers too would attain Salvation.

Recitation of the Fourth Chapter describing JnanaYoga redeemed two Apsaras who were cursed  by a Tapaswi named Satyatapa as they were bathing nude to attact the attention of the Tapaswi whom Indra suspected to dethrone him and instructed the Apsaras to disturb the Tapaswi. The Apsaras were cursed to become two bilwa trees next to each other on the banks of Ganga in Varanasi and when they begged of pardon the kind Tapaswi agreed for redemption from the curse when a Mahatma called Bharata would lie down between the trees and recite the Fourth Chapter of Gita. As soon as the recitation was over,  the trees dried up and when Bharata reached his Ashram, there were two ‘Kanyas’(maidens) awaiting the return of the Mahatma to thank him. Eversince then the Apsaras (Kanyas) regularly recited the Jnana Yoga chapter; it was in this Chapter Lord Krishna declared: Yadaa yadaahi Dharmasya glanir bhavati Bharata! Abhyuddhaanamadharnasya sadaatmaan srijaamyaham/ Paritraanaaya Sadhunaam vinashaya cha dushkrutaam Dharma samsthaapa –naarthyaaya sambhavaami yugey yugey/ (Arjuna! As and when Virtue is affected adversely and Vice dominates, I shall take an incarnation to vindicate virtue and destroy the Evil).

In the Karma Sanyasa Yoga dealt with in the Fifth Chapter of Gita, the story of a Brahmana named Pingala of Madra Desha was illustrated as he ignored the duties of a Brahmana and took to music and dance and his expertise secured the favour of the King. Pingala married a low class woman named Pingali who eventually disliked the Brahmana and killed him in sleep. Owing to their sins, Pingala and Pingali went through hells and in their next births became a vulture and parrot respectively. Being aware of the memory of past lives, the Vulture met the parrot and tore the latter apart and the parrot got thrown in a pond and died but a hunter trapped the vulture in a net and that too got killed. Surprisingly, both the birds attained salvation! The explanation given by Yama Dharma Raja was that though both the birds were sinners, their dead bodies fell in the same stream on the banks of which a Muni sat reciting the fifth chapter of Gita underlining the Karma Sanyasa Yoga.

The episode of King Janashruti of Pratishthanapuri on the banks of River Godavari was described in the Sixth Chapter as he was a rare example of virtue, fame and noble deeds. When the King was strolling on the terrace of his palace he overheard the remarks of a group of ‘Hamsas’ (Swans) since he understood the swan language that the greatness and vitue were nealy reaching the level of Mahatma Riek who resided in the Temple of Chandra sekhara at Manikswar on top of Himalayas in the Kashmira Region. The King decided to visit that Mahatma and proceeded with huge entourage and several chariots- full of gifts including gold, jewellery, clothes, foodgrains and cattle. On way from Pratishthanapuri to Maniksawara the King visited many Tirthas including Kasi, Gaya, and Mathura. King Janashruti reached the Shiva Temple at Manikswara and spotted a beggar-like Sadhu stationed on an empty cart who was identified as the Mahatma Riek. The King offered the chariots-full of gifts, the Mahatma became furious and shouted on the King saying that he could not be purchased with huge gifts! The King profusely apologised and fell on the feet of the Mahatma shivering with fear and shame. As the latter cooled down a bit, the Mahatma confessed that he attained celestial vision by constantly reciting the Jnaana Yoga from the Sixth Chapter of Gita: Yadaahi nendriyarteshu na Karmaswanushajjyatey, Sarva Sankalpa Sanyaasee yogaarudhasta dochatey/ ( A Sadhaka or Yogi would become ripe only ‘Indiraas’ or body parts of exrernal and internal nature and their demands are overcome, Karmas or Actions are subdued and the concepts of ‘You’ and ‘I’are eliminated and then only, a person would truly become a real Yogi!

The Seventh Chapter titled Vigyana Yoga gave the example of Shankhakarna who followed the profession of a Vaishya ; having become extremely rich and prosperous he married for the fourth time and being avaricious desired to travel to Places to obtain further riches! He was bitten by a serpent and eventually became a serpent. He appeared as a snake in the dreams of his children and asked them to dig up a specified shrub in the backyard of his residence to discover crores of cash and jewellery. The sons who recited the Seventh Chapter of Gita discovered the riches which they decided to utilise  for charitable purposes; the father too was liberated as the sons who were extremely pious and reversed the selfish pattern of their father. The underlying message of the Chapter is that Dharma begets Dharma and vice-versa and Vigyana is the doorstep to Dharma. The father lacked the capacity to differentiate duty and virtue as against irresponbsibility and evil.

Akshara Brahma Yoga is the title of the Eighth Chapter of Gita which underlines the Basic Truth that Parbrahma is the Supreme and Indestructible. The episodes of Bhava Sharma a Brahmana who married a Veshya (Prostitute) with unforgivable habits of meat-eating, wine-drinking and debauchery and a Brahmana couple called Kushibala and Kumati who were involved in base tantras and were examples of deceipt, greed and anger. The couples died and were converted as ‘Brahma Rakshasas’ or Huge Demons. They stayed on two Tada Vrikshas or Palm Trees and often regretted their misdeeds. They exchanged their views as to how to obtain ‘Mukti’ or liberation from their current lives. Once, a Veda Vedya Brahmana who came under the shade of the Palm Trees advised the Rakshasa Couple that they could be liberated if  they could receive BrahamaVidya’s Teaching, Adhyatmika Tatwa Vichara or the Awareness of Inner Consciousness and KarmaVidhi Gyan or knowledge of performing Karmas or deeds then they could be liberated from their present condition. The Brahma Rakshasis got utterly confused and said: Kim tat Brahma!! Kimadhyatmakam! Kim Karma! ( Who is that Brahma! What is that Adhyatma! And which is this Karma!) As soon as the Brahma Rakshasis muttered these words, a miracle happened as the Brahma Rakshasa couples got Mukti and so did the Palm Trees too. These were the opening lines of the Eighth Chapter of Gita! The further lines of the Stanza are: Adhi bhutam cha kim proktam Adhi Daivam kimuchyatey? To this query of Arjuna means: What is Adhi Bhutam! What is Adhi Daivam!. To this query Krishna replied: Aksharam Brahmaparam Swabhaavo-dhyatmamuchyatey, Bhuta bhaavodbhaava karovirangaha karma sanjnitah/ (Arjuna! The Supreme Soul is Brahma and His nature is Adhyatmika or the Internal Features, Adhi Bhoutika or the External Features and Adhi Daivika or the happenings created  by Paramatma Himself!)

The significance of the Ninth Chapter of Gita was explained by the instance of a Sacrificial Goat at one Yagna by Madhava a Brahmana who resided on the banks of River Narmada.. The goat talked suddenly in human voice to the surprise of the ‘Ritviks’ and onlookers. It said that Yagnas were meaningless as all the human beings would have to go through the process of birth-childhood-youth-old age and death. The same fate was awaiting  the goat too, the animal said. The onlookers asked the goat as to who was it in the previous birth and it narrated the story that it was a Brahmana who performed a sacrifice to Devi Chandika as his son was ill; but Devi cursed him as it was improper to sacrifice a goat to cure his son’s illness and cursed the Brahmana to become a goat. The goat further narrated that there was a King named Chandra Sharma in Kurukshetra who gave in charity a ‘Kaala Purusha Pratima’ at the time of Solar Eclipse but a chandala couple emerged from the Pratima and were about to devour the King and the Brahmana and the latter was quick in reciting the Ninth Chapter of Gita entitled ‘Raja Vidya Raja Guhya Yoga’and the chandala couple called ‘Paapa’ (Sin) and ‘Ninda’ (Blame) disappeared at once. The substance of the Chapter is : Ananyaschintanaamtoma maam ye janaah paryupaasatey, teshaam nithyaabhi yuktaanaam yoga kshemam vahaamyaham/ (Those who always think and meditate of me, surely I look after them and assure them of their welfare). Ever since then the King always recited and reflected the purport of the Chapter. Eventually, the goat was released to freedom.

Vibhuti Yoga was the title of the Tenth Chapter of Gita. A Brahmana called Dhirabuddhi visioned of Atma Tatwa and Bhagavan Shankara had immense affection for the Brahmana. Once when Bhagavan sat on the mount of Kailasha, a Hamsa (Swan) fell at his feet with a thud and bemoaned that while flying above a Pond in Saurashtra it crossed a lotus shrub and its natural color of crystal white got fully black since the lotus shrub released sixty five bees which blackned the swan. The lotus shrub was in its third previous birth was a Brahmana house-wife called Sarojavadana who was no doubt a Pativrata but was immersed in play with a Mynah bird in a cage when her husband called her and the Brahmana cursed her to become a Mynah. The Mynah was brought up by a Muni Kanya and the Muni was in the constant recital of the the Vibhuti Yoga or the Tenth Chapter of Gita and the bird learnt the ‘Adhyaya’ fully and in its next birth became an Apsara. The Apsara was bathing in a Sarovara when Sage Durvasa out of fury cursed her to become a lotus shrub and the Swan crossed that very shrub that released the sixty black bees which changed the colour of the Swan! Such was the power of the Vibhuti Yoga in which Lord Krishna told Arjuna that all kinds of ‘Vibhutis’ or manifestations  were his own like radiance, powers, virtues, meditation, prosperity and victory. The Vibhutis  in this context included the swan crossing the lotus shrub was out of ignorance; Sarojavana’s attachment to the Mynah was out of attraction; her husband’s curse was due to anger; the accursed Mynah’s learning of the Tenth Chapter was due to concentration and memory power; her becoming an Apsara was an upgradation of life; Muni Durvasa’s curse was an expression of anger to create a lotus  shrub; Dhirabuddhi’s vision of Atma Tatwa and Bhagavan Shiva’s affection was due to the devotee’s extreme devotion!

The Eleventh Chapter of Gita is entitled Vishva Darshana Yoga and one illustration of the effectivness of the yoga related to the Episode of a Prama Bhakta named Sunandana Muni residing in Meghankara Nagar on the banks of River Pranita. The Muni undertook a travel to visit ‘Tirthas’and on way stopped over in a village where the village head warned the Muni that a Rakshasa moved about in the village and might catch hold of a stranger as per an Agreement with the Rakshasa that none of the villagers be killed for his food but might eat up a stranger if required.  Next morning it was learnt that by mistake the son of the Village Head was killed! The Muni asked the Head as to how the Rakshasa arrived in the first instance! The background was that there was a Brahmana Farmer in the village who did not heed the loud cryingsof a stranger when he was chased by a huge vulture and fell in a ditch; the Brahmana Farmer could have  easily saved the stranger by lending a helping hand by lifting the stranger but the Brahmana did not bother; a Tapasvi detested the casualness of the Brahmana and let the stranger to be killed and thus cursed the Brahmana to become a Rakshasa. On hearing the background of the Rakshasa, Sunandana Muni recited in full the Eleventh Chapter of Gita and liberated not only the Rakshasa but also lifted to Vishnu Loka by a Vimana the Village Head’s son killed by the Rakshasa too.  The Chapter quoted Shri Krishna’s instruction to Arjuna saying: ‘ I am enabling you Arjuna! To view the vision of my Supreme Form who has no beginning nor end; whose might is unlimited; who has countless hands; who possesses Surya and Chandra as his eyes; who has a fiery and radiant face like Agni and who has a powerful and red-hot scorching Form!’

The Twelth Chapter  is considered as a highlight of Bhagavad Gita since it deals with Bhakti Yoga. A young Prince of Kolhapuri of the south-west of Bharata Varsha visited the most reputed Maha Lakshmi Temple and prayed to Lakshmi Devi most sincerely as the latter was pleased to respond to the euologies and asked the Prince of his desire. He narrated that his father King Brihadratha had half-completed an Ashwamedha Yagna and died while the Sacrificial Horse no doubt returned from its ‘Vijaya Yatra’ or the Victory March but  was missing and the Yagna remained half-accomplished. He requsted Devi Lakshmi to restore the horse and let the soul of  his dead father who was still embalmed in oil be given the satisfaction of completing the Yagna. Bhagavati Lakshmi directed the Prince to appoach a Siddha Samadhi Muni at the very entrance of the Temple and that he would do the needful. As directed, the Prince made the request to the Muni and was astonished to invoke certain Devas who confessed that the horse was hidden by them under the instruction of Indra Deva. He pulled up the Devas concerned and commanded that the horse be brought there at once. Indeed the horse was brought there in tact. The Prince was so impressed that he emboldened himself to request the  Siddha Muni hesitantly whether his father whose body was still in oil could be brought back to life so that he could complete the Yagna himself! Siddha Muni smiled and asked the Prince to take him to Yagna-shala and having reached there sprinkled ‘Mantra jala’ or the Sanctified Water and the King came back to life again. The Prince was totally taken aback and asked the Muni as to how the miracles happened including the admonition to Devas to bring back the horse and what was more thrilling the revival of his dead father back to life! The Muni gave a cool reply that the powers that he attained were due to his constant recitation of Bhakti Yoga Chapter of Bhagavad Gita! The Holy Book’s Bhakti Yoga Chapter states: ‘A devotee who is free from likings and dislikings as also from happiness or unhappiness and who dedicates all his deeds to me totally with unreserved faith is my favourite!’

‘Kshetra Kshetragna Yoga’ was elucidated in the Thirteenth Chapter of Bhagavad Gita: On the banks of the twin River Tunga-Bhadra in the Southern Part of Bharata Varsha, there was a popular Kshetra called Haraihara where a Vedic Brahmana named Hari Dikshit lived. His wife Kuvaacha  was however a characterless slut. Looking for a companion in bed, one night she treaded into a forest and faced a Tiger. The tiger felt that if the woman faced was of morality, she should not be killed but the animal pounced on Kuvaacha and killed her straightaway. The woman experienced several hells like Rourava and was born as a Chandalini. As she grew up she became a victim of diseases and reached a Temple of Jambhaka Devi where a Brahmana always recited the thirteenth chapter of Gita the essence of which was to distinguish the ‘Kshetra’or the human body and the ‘Khetrajna’or the Supreme Being. The woman was fed up through harrowing experiences in Narakas and the incurable diseases in her current life and the meaning of verse by verse of the thirteenth  chapter that the Brahmana explained to her was like ambrosia to her inner self and a totally transformed Kuvaacha attained Salvation.The exhortation to Arjuna by Bhagavan Krishna explained the body of every human being was like Kshetra and by inference those who realise this basic Truth would tend to perform honest efforts and aim at Ishwara Prapti.Lord Krishna further asserted: ‘ Arjuna! Do realise that I am the Kshetrajna; the real Jnaana is the awareness of the Kshetra and Kshetrajna’!

The Fourteenth Chapter of Gita dealing with ‘Gunatraya Yoga’ highlighted ‘Bhava Bandhana Vimochana’ or Relief from the shackles of ‘Samsaara’or worldly desires and provided the illustration of the King of Simhala , Vikrama Betala who went on a hunting spree on horses chasing a few hares with a few dogs showing the way. The hares crossed a breach but the dogs could not; there was a peaceful Ashram of Vatsa Muni who along with his disciples always recited the Gunatraya Vibhaga Yoga of Gita.One of the disciples of the Muni cleaned up his feet with water before entering the Prayer Hall of the Ashram. The sand and water mix turned muddy and the hares fell in the slush. As soon as the hares fell in the slush they were air-lifted by a Vimana bound for Vishnu Loka thanks to the recitation of the Fourteenth Chapter. Meanwhile the dogs chasing the hares fell in the slush and they too were air-lifted to Gandharva Loka. Then followed King Vikrama at the Ashram and the Prayer Hall and asked the Muni as to why  the hares and dogs went to higher lokas. The Muni explained that there was a Brahmana named Keshava and his wife Vilobhana who were both quite vily; the Brahmana killed his wife and in the subsequent birth became as dogs while the wife turned into hares.Both these were the beneficiaries of the recitation of the Fourteenth Chapter. Lord Krishna gave the message of the ‘Adhyaaya’: ‘Once the three Gunas of Satva-Rajasa-Tamasa, which are responsible of old age and death, then human beings break away from the chains of Samsara and attain Salvation. The person concerned who worships Krishna with unreserved devotion would cross the barriers of the Tri-Gunas and would be able to step into the ‘Parama Brahma Sthiti’ or the Highest Salvation!’

The ‘Daivasura Sampad Vibhaga Yoga’ of Gita was illustrated by an uncontrollable  Rogue Elephant called Arimardan on the Court of King Khangabahu of Saurashtra in Gujarat. Several Elephant Tamers from the Kingdom and many others failed to tame even by using heavy iron rods, piercing tridents and such other weapons even while streams of blood flowed but each time the tamers tried, Arimardan turned more and more violent. One day a Brahmana arrived and touched and cajoled the wild animal with affection as the onlookers wondered as to how such a miracle occurred! The Brahmana confirmed that he was a regular reciter of the Chapter of Gita. The King then ordered that the elephant be set free  and as a result even boys and girls played with it on the Sreets. Bhagavan Krishna then addressed Arjuna saying: ‘Ignorance, arrogance, pretentiousness, egotism, anger and Self-Image are all features of Asuras while the Three enemies of human beings viz.Kama (desire), Krodha (fury) and lobha (avarice) were destoyers of one’s own Soul and entry points of Naraka which are avoided by intelligent persons . The ignorance of the elephant misdirected him and taming was accomplished by affection, humility and peacefulness.

The Chapter titled ‘Shraddha Traya Vaibhava Yoga’ which is the penultimate Adhyaya of Gita illustrates the Story of King  Khangabahu of Simhala Dwipa, his servant and their elephant. One Dussahana drove the elephant in a race, made it run too fast by poking it by an ‘Ankusha’ and  out of annoyance the animal dropped Dusshahana dead. The servant in his subsequent birth was born as an elephant in the same Royal Court. The new elephant (Dussahana) was gifted by the King to a Poet who in turn sold it to the King of Malwa for a good price. But on reaching Malwa, the elephant took suddenly ill and lied down without food and water. Many experts treated it but to no avail. Medicines, charities and Prayers did not help. Finally, a Brahmana recited the Seventeenth Chapter and the elephant started recovering and tried to stand up but fell down dead. The Brahmana  who recited the Chapter explained that the dead elephant in its earlier birth was Dussahana and as as a result of the recitation attained Moksha. King of Malwa continued the reading of the Chapter and attained Sayujya later. Lord Krishna told Arjuna: The features and ways of life are normally shaped by every human being  by his own ‘Swabhava’ or personal traits.

The Final Chapter of Bhagavad Gita named ‘Moksha Sanyasa Yoga’ contained the quintessence of Vedas and Shastras signifying the termination of Samsara Bandha or the shacles of Life. It is the destroyer of ‘Arishadvargas’ or the Six Enemies of humanity viz. Kama-Krodha-Moha-Mada-Lobha- and Matsarya; the final goal of Siddha Purushas and the High-Point of Entertainment of Maharshis. Sincere recitation of this Grand Finale of Gita constitutes sure steps forward to Moksha or the total break-away from the endless cycles of Life! The Episode behind the Final Chapter was that when Indra was enjoying a dance-music ensemble of Apsarasas, a few Vishnu-Dootas rushed in to convey that a new Indra would be soon installed in Swarga Loka. Indra wondered whether the Indra-Elect performed hundred yagnas successully or constructed lakhs of water-bodies or planted crores of trees for the joy of the travellers or organised countless ‘Anna Danas’ and charities as he did. He reached Bhagavan Vishnu and expressed agitation about the news of the new incumbent and whether his own position was at stake! Vishnu smiled and asked Indra to meet the new-elect at Kalikagram on the banks of Godavari who was a constant reciter of the Final Chapter of Bhagavad Gita; Vishnu further assured Indra that he too could retain his position if he performed likewise too. Indra visited the Indra-Elect in the form of a Brahmana and realised that each such recital of the Final chapter would be equated to the fruit of performing one Yagna plus all the Punya Karyas or the benevolent and splendid  tasks that Indra did in the past qualifying him to achieve ‘Indratwa’! The Supreme Message of the Moksha Sanyasa Yoga is thus summed up as: Sarva Karmanyapi sadaa kurvaano madvyapa-ashrayah, Madprasaadaadavapnoti Shasvatam padamavyayam/ (Do accomplish the everlasting and indestructible ‘Parama pada’ by performing the needful ‘Karmas’ and keeping complete faith in me!

Sri V.D.N.Rao and Shri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham presents the Essence of Puranas in English, condensed by Sri. V.D.N.Rao, devotee of Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetam. Compiled, Composed and Interpreted by V.D.N.Rao, Former General Manager, India Trade Promotion Organisation, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi Ministry of Commerce, Govt. of India The author can be contacted at [email protected]