Utkal Region: Puri Jagannadha,Bhubhaneshwar, Konarak, Sakshi Gopal

Shri Jagannadh is among the foremost four ‘Dhaams’ of Bharata Varsha, viz. Badarinath in Satya Yuga, Rameshwar in Treta Yuga, Dwaraka in Dwapar Yuga and Jagannadha in Kali Yuga. This Dhaam is called with several names such as Shri Kshetra, Purushottama Puri, Shankha Kshetra as it has the outline of Conch shell or Vishnu Bhagavan’s ‘Panchajanya’ as also as Shakteyas call it as Uddiyan Peeth since the navel of Devi Sati’s Yagjna Swarup fell here as one of the major Shakti Peethas. The legendary belief is that in the distant past, there was the worship of Neelachal and on its top there was Nila Madhava Temple and as the Mountain eventually came down to the ground level as the Nilachala Chhatra where Jagannadha Puri exists now. Skanda Purana gives the origin of this Purushottama Kshetra in details as follows from the Essence of Skanda Purana published vide www.Kamakoti.Org/ news:Sage Jaimini told the Munis at Naimisharanya that King Indradyumna, an ardent devotee of Vishnu was keen in having a ‘darshan’ of the Idol of Neela Madhava at the Temple situated in the Nilachal Mountain’s cave, on the coastal side of East Bharatavarsha, in the Utkal Region. The King asked his Priest to ascertain the route and arrange for the trip. One of the Pilgrims who returned from the famed Temple in the foothills of Nilachal Mountain (who perhaps was Bhagavan Jagannatha Himself) described the route to the Royal Priest that the Temple was in Purushottama Kshetra near a holy pond known as Rohin adjacent to a place called Odhra and that there was a Temple of Vasudeva besides which there was a hermitage called ‘Shabardeep’ leading to the path of Jagannath Temple. The Royal Priest’s younger brother Vidyapati was approved by the King to make an initial trip so that the King would perform the ‘Yatra’ (expedition) subsequently.Vidyapati and party undertook a tedious and tiring journey to the Ekamvaran forests at the foothills of Mountain and at the Shabardeep hermitage met Vishvavasu. Both Vidyapati and Vishvavasu visited the Place after a steep ascent of the Mountain and finally reached the Rohin Pond and after a bath had Darshan of Neela Madhava. Vidyapati was overwhelmed by the thrilling experience of Jagannatha’s darshan and prayed to Him to his heart’s content. Vidyapati was told by Shabar Vishvavasu that several Devas frequented the Temple and brought expensive gifts and garlands to the Lord; when Vidyapati returned back to King Indradyumna the former showed the flowers which never withered as they were celestial! But Vishvavasu gave the disheartening news to Vidyapati that the latter would not be able to have a darshan of Neela Madhava, although something better might happen! Vidyapati was advised not to disclose this fact to the King on his return to the Kingdom as the King might be highly discouraged. Even as Vidyapati returned and was describing the rapturous darshan that he had of Neela Madhava, Sage Narada appeared and desired to accompany the King on his way to the Purushottama Kshetra. The King and his large entourage set for the journey and reached the banks of River Mahanadi for an overnight stay before proceeding to the Jagannatha Temple next morning. The King of Utkal informed the senior King Indradyumna that there was a very heavy sand storm and the Idol of Neela Madhava was underneath a huge heap of debris.Luckily Sage Narada was with Indradyumna and consoled the latter and assured him that Lord Jagannatha was extremely merciful and that something memorable would happen! Next morning the King’s full entourage crossed River Mahanadi, worshipped Lord Purushottama at ‘Eakaamrechhetra’ and further proceeded to Kotishwar Mahalaya to perform Puja to ‘Tribhuvaneswara’. The latter appeared before Sage Narada and instructed that King Indradyumna should perform hundred Yagyas; that Lord Jagannatha would manifest Himself from under the debris; that a Vata Tree with four branches would have to be carved out by Viswakarma the Celestial Artist as Four Idols of Lord Jagannatha, Balabhadra, Devi Subhadra the sister of the former brothers and ‘Sudarshan Chakra’; that He (Tribhuneswara) along with Devi Durga would be present at the top entry of the conchshell shaped Purusha Kshetra; that Lord Brahma would install and consecrate the Holy Idols for the everlasting benefit of generations ahead and the dream and perseverance of King Indradyumna would become fruitful. Sage Narada assured that Lord Tribhuvaneswara‟s instructions would be followed in full letter and spirit. From there the caravan moved to Nilakantha Mahadeva and worshipped Mahadeva and Durga. The King was anxious to reach the Place where Lord Jagannatha was under sand; he prayed to Him as though he could visualise the Idol and there emerged a voice from the rubble assuring the King that he would soon have His appearance. Since the first task to be performed was to organise the hundred Yagnas as directed by Tribhuvaneswara, Narad was anxious to take up the construction of the Temple of Lord Nrisimha as that was the Place to complete the Yagnas. Sughat, the son of Viswakarma completed the construction of the Temple within five days, while Vishwakarma made the Idol of Nrisimha which was installed by Narada. Thereafter the task of carving wood for the four major Idols of Jagannath, Balabhadra, Subhadra and Sudarshan Chakra was taken up and a Celestial voice came saying that the Idols would emerge on their own, that the oldest worker be sent inside the Main Gate which should be closed till the job was over, that the sound of drums be kept on continuously till the job was going on inside to cover up the sounds from there, that if somebody heard the sounds from inside he would be irrevocably deaf, and that somebody saw what was happening inside that person would be blind for ever. On the fifteenth day, a Celestial Voice emerged that all the Idols were manifested. Thereafter the heavenly voices kept on giving instructions about the colour schemes of the Idols ( Deep blue like clouds for Jagannatha, white for Balabhadra, red like rising Sun for Subhadra and deep red for Sudarshan), the ornament details and so on. As the Idols were getting ready with all finishing touches, Indradyumna was in trance and asked Jagannatha for nothing excepting salvation from the mortal life.Narada, the King and the entire entourage entered the Sanctum Sanctorium chanting ‘Dwadasaakshara Mantra’ (Om Namo Vasudevaya) in praise of the Lord Jagannatha, ‘Purusha Suktam’ addressed to Balabhadra, ‘Sri Suktam’ for Subhadra and appropriate Vedic Mantras for Sudarshana Chakra. Narada visualised the various articles required for the Consecration Ceremony and were secured by the King. A Palace was built for Brahma and three Chariots were readied for the three Deities; the required number of horses-sixteen to Jagannatha, fourteen to Balabhadra and twelve to Subhadra-were readied too. The mast on top of the Chariot of Jagannatha was made with Garuda Vahan (The Lord’s Carrier), that of Balabhadra had a plough, and of Subhadra’s chariot was a Lotus. Indeed the King was so fortunate that the wherewithall for the Function was instantly procured by Sages and Devas! Finally, at the ‘Muhurat’ time, Lord Brahma performed the Consecration on Suddha Visakha Ashtami on Thursday with Pushyami as the Nakshatra, as witnessed by Devas, Yakshas, Kinnaras and Maharshis! The famous nine day Ratha Yatra commenced on Suddha Ashadha Vidiya and returned from the banks of Bindu Tirtha on the eighth day. Sage Jaimini explained that Lord Brahma clarified to Raja Indradyumna about a doubt as to why Jagannath assumed the Wooden Form of Idols. The ‘Daru’ (Wooden) Idols represent ‘Duhkha vidarana’ or destroying of distress and bestowing of endless happiness; as Srihari is ‘Darumaya’. He therefore manifested in wooden form. At the time of ‘Srishti’ (Creation) following Pralaya, Parabrahma (The Supreme Being) manifested in the Form of Vedas or the mix of ‘Sabda Brahma’ and ‘Artha Brahma’. Bhagavan Balabhadra is of Rig Ved Swarup, while Subhdra is of Yajur Veda Swarup. Nrisimha is of Sama Veda Swarup and Sudarshan is of Atharva Veda Swarup. If a composite view is taken, the Deities thus represented all the Veda Swarupas and Jagannatha is the sum total and likewise all these forms are Jagannatha Himself. The ‘Vata Vriksha’ on the Sea Bed at the time of Pralaya was thus the depiction of Bhagavan and the Wooden Idols made out of the Tree are His Symbols! The Sacred Jagannatha Mandir is very wide and large within a courtyard with four major gates, the principal Mandir with gour gates comprising three portions, one being the ‘Sri Mandir’ with its minaret which is the highest in which Jagannatha is set up with three huge and most impressive semi ready Vigrahs of Jagannatha in the middle, Devi Subhadra the sister and Baabhadra to the extreme left with their half carved hands shown up as though blessing the Universe; the second portion devoted to Jagan Mohana Mandir and the third porion as Mukha shaala including a Bhog Mandap. The Main Mandir has the Simha Dwara in the Eastern side, Ashwadwaar in the Southern side, Vyaghra dwaar in the Western side and Hasti Dwaar in the Northern side. Facing right outside the Basic Mandir or the Sanctum is the Aruna Sthambha and having performed a Pradakshina or circumambulation of the Pillar, one enters the right side of the gate into the Sanctum to vision of the most thrilling experience of Jagannatha Tri- Vigrahas. Opposite the Sanctum, there is a small Vishwanatha Linga; to signify the Linga, the story narrated in the Jagannatha Temple is that a Brahmana had a dream that only after performing Vishweshwara Lingaarchana at Kasi only that Puri Jagannatha darshana and puja would become fruitful. Outside the Pradhana Mandir, an ascent by 25 stepped ladder would lead to a 25 divisioned view of Prakriti or Nature. From the second ‘Praakaara’ of the Main Temple Dwara one could view the Prasada Market within the Temple itself. Further in the Temple are Agajanana Natha ganesh, Vatera Maha Deva, PataMangala Devi, Satyanarayana Bhagavan, and Vata Vriksha famed as Kalpa Vriksha, Bala Mukunda Vatapatra shaayi, Ganesha Mandir called Siddha Ganesha, Sarva Mangala Devi and so on. In front of the Jagannatha Nija Mandir is a Mukti Mandala with a Simhasana ot Throne where Brahma himself used to be seated. Behind the Mukti Mandap is the Mukta Nrisimha Mandir and most signigicantly Vimala Devi Mandira, the Shakti Peetha of the Kshetra, followed by Sarasvati, Lakshmi Mandiras and in between that of Nila Madhava Mandir.and many such other Temples. Special Festivals are organiseed from Vaishakha ShuklaTritiya to Jyeshtha Krishna Ashtami when Vigrahas of Madan Mohan,Rama Krishna, Lakshmi- Sarasvati, Pancha Mahadevas viz. Nila kantheshwar, Markandeshwar, Lokanatha, Kapala Lochana, and Jammeshwara Utsava Vigrahas are taken to Chandana Tataka or Sarovara for bathing and later on for Nouka Vihara or boat sail. On Jyeshtha Shukla Ekadashi, Rukmini harana by Lord Krishna is enacted in the Mandir itself. On Jyeshtha Purnima day, the Vigrahas of Jagannatha, Subhadra and Balarama are duly bathed and brought to Snaana Mandapa where 108 ghadas of Sacredwaters are engaged to bathe the Vigrahas; it is stated that after the bathing ceremony, Bhagavan Jagannatha gives the Swarupa as Lord Ganesha only for a fortnight the Mandir is re-opened. The famed Annual Ratha Yatra of Lord Jaannatha is scheduled to taket take place on Ashaadha Shukla Dwiteeya/ Three chariots which are large and roomy and the first one is to install Lord Bala Rama, the second one to accommodate Subhadra Devi and Sudarshana Chakra and the third one exclusuively for Lod Jagannaatha himself. By the evening the Chariots reach the Gundicha Mandir. On the second day the Idols are placed in the Mandir and provide darshan to the masses for seven days till Dashami and return. These nine days are called that Jagannatha and other Murtis provide what is called ‘Aadapadarshana’ and this darshan in a year is considered as most significant. On Shravan Amavasya, Jagannath’s ‘Sevik Utsav’ or Services Festival is celebrated. On Shravan Shukla Paksha Dashami ‘Jhoolan Yatra’ or Swing Travel Festival is celebratd.On Janmashtami the Lord’s Birth day is performed with great pomp and show. On Bhadrapada Krishna Ekadashi the Kaliya Serpent’s Damana is observed. Like wise, Bhadrapada Shukla Ekadashi for Parshwa Parivarta- notsava, Vamana Dwadashi; Sudarshana Vijayotsava on Ashwiyuja Purnima, Navaratri Festivities and Vimala Devi Utsava and so on are observed, besides on all significant days concerened. Incidentally, Jagannaatha Maha Pradad Mahima is universally reputed as it is blemishless and consumed without restrictions of ‘Ucchittashtata dosha’ or eating of the remains of what others already ate or handled by others etc and hence the adage of Sarvam Jagannaatham! As regards the ‘Snaana prakriya’ or bathing at this Tirtha, major Places for the purpose are Mahodadhi or Samudra itself especially at Swarga Dwaara or the Sea Shore which is walking distance of a km. or so from the Main Dwara of the Mandir itself, besides Rohini Kund, Indradyumna Sarovar, Markandeya Sarovar, Shweta Ganga, Chandana Taalaab, Lokanaatha Sarovar, and Chakra Tirtha, all not very distant. Other impotant Mandirs in Puri are Gundicha Mandir already referred to above in the context of the RathaYatra about a Km. plus; Kapala Mochana in the SouthWest of the Main Mandir; Sakshi Gopal Mandir ( see the reference of Sakshi Gopal Mandir later); Amaramuth right before the Simha Dwaara or the Main Gate of the Main Mandir; Gambhira Math / Radhakanta Math on way to Swarga daara of the Sea, where Chaitanya Maha Prabhu lived for 18 long years; Siddha Bakul where Haridasa Bhajana Sthal is active; Govardhana Peeth or one of the Four Maths established by Adi Shankaraacharya viz. Kanchi Kama Koti, Shringeri Sharadamba, Dwaraka Math, and now the Puri Math, besides of course Badari; Kabira Math at Swarga Dwara on the Sea shore where Patala Ganga Kupa or Well is and where Sant Kabir stayed for some time; Lokanatha Mahadeva LingaMandir within water also called Shiva Ganga and Chakra Tirtha and Chakra Narayana Mandir opposite Bedi Hanuman Madir or shackled Hanuman since once Hanuman left for Shri Rama Navami Celebrations to Ayodhya and returned and thus is chained eversince!Indeed this Purushottama Kshetra is distinct as Shankha Kshetra since it has the Form and Shape of a Conchshell like ‘Pancha janya’. This Shape is explained and represented by Maha Deva since on the Western side is Vrishabhadhwaja, Eastern side is Neeka Kantha, Centre is Kapala Mochana and Arthaasani Devi on the North. This is also the Abode of Eight Devi Peethas: Vata Moola of Jagannatha Mandir is Mangala Devi, on the western side is Vimala Devi, Shankhaakara Prishtha or the Rear Form of Shankha is Sarva Mangala Devi, Eastern side is Marichi, Northern Side is Ardhaasani and Lamba Devi, and Dakshina is represented by Kala Ratri and Chandika. Also, Vateshwara, Kapalamochana, Kshetrapaala, Yameshwara, Markandeshwara, Ishana, Vishwesha and Neela kantha on the eight places of the Shankha is another explanation.

Bhuvaneshwar: It is stated that like Kasi, Bhuvaneshwar the Capital City of Odisha State is the Temple City-the Cathedral City-in Bharat with some countless active Temples, besides being the hub of Indusrty and Commerce and of course, the City of Power and Governance as also of Fine Arts of Music and Dance. The most sigificant Temple of the City is the LingarajaMandir, and Lingaraj himself is Bhuvaneshwar. This massive Temple has four dwaras and the Simha dwaara or the Main Door entrance itself is the welcoming Ganesha in his Mandir. Ahead of this is the Nandi Stambha or the Pillar and further the Bhog Mandir where the Lingaraj Bhog Prasad blessed with Hari-Hara Mantras is distributed. After the Bhog Mandir is the Natya Mandir of Jagmohan and Mush shala the south of which is the door leading to Viman or Shri Mandir, the Nija Mandir the architectural beauty is indeed readily arresting one’s attention. In side is the Shila or stone swarupa ‘Budbud Linga’which being of Chakraakaara or wheel formed shape is signified as Hariharatmaka and venerated with the chanting of Harharatmaka Mantra. Yatris can by themselves perform worship and since the Linga is of the wheel form the Shiva swarupa of the Linga assumes form of accompanying a Pinaki or of a bow and arrow rather than of a Trishula or a Trident. Besides the Main Mandir are three auxiliary Mandirs of significance viz. Ganesha Mandir in the Southern side, Parvati Mandir bedingb the Man Mandir and of Kartikeya northwards; in the Linga Raja Mandir itelf are the Vigrahas of Kirti Mukha, Natyeshwara, and Dasha Dikpalakaas.Outside the Sanctom are many Deva-Devi Mandirs mainly of Maha Kaleshwara, Lakshmi-Nrisimha, Yameshwara, Vishwakarma, Bhuvaneshwari, Gopaalini (Parvati) etc. Shri Mukteshwara Mandir is infact older than Linga Raja Mandir built in 11th century as the former was of 10th century but is no less popular as the former is an excellent piece of stone architecture depicting the Saga of Pancha Tantra carvings. The Rajarani Temple is a fantastic place for floral, animal and human figures, but has no Deity! Near Mukteshwar Mandir is the Parashurama Temple with decorated shrine of Lord Shiva built as far back as 7th century featuring amorous couples, animals and floral motifs and Swarna Jaleshwar Temple  not far from Parashurama Temple has depictions from Ramayana. Vaital Temple is not only rich in architectural Art but also is the famed Chamunda / Kapali Temple with considerable Tantric influence. A Yogini Temple off 15km from Bhubaneshwar at Hapur is one of the four famed Temple complexes of the kind has Yogins carved and worshipped too from black stone. An interesting Ashokan Rock Edict at Dhauli- Giri Hills some 8 km south of Bhuvaneshwar is seen in serene surroundings under Daya River; this Rock carving as an Edict signifies Emperor Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism. On the Dhaulagiri Hiils, the Vishwa Shani Stupa signifying Aksoka’s repentance of mass killings and hence the conversion.Located some 20 km from Bhavaneshwar is the Nandan Kaanan Zoo and a thrilling Lions Safari as also of ferocious White Tigers, driven by the Zoo vehicles as groups of the wild animals literally cross the roads right before the visitors very near. Yet another attraction of Bhavaneshwar is the Atri Hot Water Sulphur Spring, some 42 km from Bhuvaneshwar. Boating in Chilka Lake and swimming in would indeed be very fulfilling too not too far from Bhuvaneshwar.

Konarak: which is some 35 km from Bhuvaneshwar is the Abode of the famed Surya Temple supported by the legendary background referred to by both Bhavishya Purana and Samba Purana. The fact clearly brought out by Bhavishya Purana is that Bhagavan Surya cured leprosy as suffered by Sambu the son of Lord Krishna under the advice of Sage Kataka and Sambu underwent penance for twelve years in Mitravana on the banks of Chandrabhaga River some 3 km away from the beaches of Sea at Konark and pleased by the devotion and worship Surya Deva cured Sambu’s leprosy the faith that Chandrabhaga snaana cures the disease continues till date. Apparently, Sambu out of gratitude was responsible to build the foremost Sun Temple at Konark on the banks of Chandrabhaga near the shores of the Sea. Now, Samba Purana describes the infatuation of Chandrabhaga with Surya Deva who also reciprocated the passion, apparently reflected in the erotic sculptures at Konark, traditionally as one of the concepts handed down in the repeated constructions from age to age depending on the themes as now followed by the changing Royalties. The sculpture as of now has the Kalinga imprint. As it stands Konark is indeed a huge piece of Art in black stone!Konark is listed among the World Heritage Sites in India, considered as one of India’s Seven Wonders.Kona literally means angle and Arka is Sun thus signifying both this Sun Temple and Jagannatha Temple in Puri, as the pride of Kalinga. This Sun Temple built in 13th century AD is basically designed as the huge and seven feet high Surya Deva’s Chariot with twelve pairs of ornamented wheels drawn by seven horses. Unfortunately, only six horses are in position as Mughal King Jehangir’s men destroyed it in 17th century. The audience hall Jaganmohana still stands and the roof of Natya Madir fell off, but despite the ruins and damages as also the ravages of wind and rains, the glory of Konark, its  grand majesty and imposing awe do still sustain. Konark is still considered as the Soura Sampradaya’s / or traditional symbol and Maagha Shukla Saptami is considered as the Ratha Saptami Day and on that morning, preferably in the Chandrabhaga River, Arunodaya snaana is performed by reciting the Mantra: Yadaa janma kritam paapam mayaa Janma janmasu, Tanme rogamcha shokam cha maakari hantu Saptami/ Yetat janmakritam paapam yaccha janmaantararjitam, Manovaakkaayajam yaccha jnaataa jnaatecha ye punah/ Iti saptavidhamn paapam snaanaanme sapta saptike, Sapta vyaadhi samaa yuktam haramaakari Saptami/   Bhagavati Temple and Ramachandi Temple darshana-all not too far from Konark are signifcant but tourists flock in large gatherings only to vision the priceless thrill of Sunrise early morning on the Sea beaches nearby.

Sakshi Gopal is hardly 4-5 km away from Puri and that is why yatris normally worship at Jagannaantha Mndir and proceed to Sakshi Gopal and nearby Radhika Mandir too. One should normally perform snaana and then seek Gapala Darshana and puja offering Tulasi dala maalas to the Deity and fragrant flowers like jasmines to Devi Radha. There is an interesting legendary back ground stated in connection to the Sakshi Gopal Mandir: once an old Brahmana desirous of walking up to Sakshi Gopala Mandir from Puri and as in olden days there were neither buses or trains and not even proper roads. On way, the old Brahmana met a Brahmana youth and he too was desirous of Gopala darshana. The youth took great care to the Old companion and became friendly. In fact, the youth took excellent care and service to the aged Brahmana. They both had very fulfilling darshana and spent enjoyable time on the return to Puri.The old Brahmana was well to do while the youth was not only poor but an orphan too. On the return journey itself the old man decided to marry off his daughter to the youth and conveyed so on the way back. On arrival at Puri both reached the house and conveyed the wedding news to the daughter who readily felt happy, but the sons had other plans of a rich boy in the neighbourhood and even proposed to the boy and parents awaiting the father’s final return and consent.There came a tussle between the two families and the matter was referred to the King. The latter asked the Brahmana youth to whom the promise was made asked whether there was any evidence when the old man conveyed the wish to do so.The youth replied that Sakshi Gopala himself was the evidence. The youth went back to the Mandir and in great faith asked the Deity in privacy. A voice was heard that the youth should return and Gopala would follow the youth, but should not look back at any cost, lest only the Gopala Pratima would follow but not Gopala himself. The jingling sound of Lord Gopala’s anklets continued all the way back and the youth was happy to have really brought Gopala himself. The King and his court’s men besides the family members heard the jingling sounds and when the youth turned back finally the King and all concerned as also the youth were amazed to witness the Sakshi Gopala’s Idol standing stilled. The King then perfomed the wedding of the youth with grea pomp and show. He also made elaborate plans for installing the new Vigraha of Sakshi Gopal in a Vijaya Yatra in the premises of Jagannatha Mandir itself. In fact, the ‘Naivedya bhog’ daily offered to Jagannatha used to be first offered to Sakshi Gopal in the Main Mandir premises. But Lord Jagannath appeared in the dreams of the King that this new Vigrah had actually entered the Satya narayana Idol at a Mandir some 5-6 km away from Jagannatha Mandir; the King then worshipped that Satra narayana Temple very often and that Temple got intensified in its popularity. Meanwhile the Sakishi Gopala in the premises of Jagannatha Temple lost its sheen as the latter was dejected without the company of Devi Radha. In course of time, the Mahapatra or the Head Purohit of Jagannatha Temple gave birth to a female child with the ‘Amsha’ of Vrshabheswari Kumari and she was called Lakshmi. She came of age gradually but her father Bilveshwar Mahapatra started noticing that the Mala or garland of flowers as decorated around the Sakshi Gopal’s neck in the previous night was reappearing on Lakshmi’s bed; this coincidence came to be the talk of the town. The King installed a Radha Mandir in the premises of Sakshi Gopal and Mahapatra decided to marry off his daughter Lakshmi at the same Muhoorat of Devi Radha’s installation. But Lakshmi passed away at the very same time of Radha’s installation! As all these events happened on Kartika Shukla Navami, this day of the year is celebtated with the Darshan of Sakshi-Gopal and Devi Radha as exist in the premises of Jagannatha Temple as also at the original Sakshi Gopal Temple off Puri!

Sri V.D.N.Rao and Shri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham

Kamakoti.org presents the Essence of Puranas in English, condensed by Sri. V.D.N.Rao, devotee of Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetam. Compiled, Composed and Interpreted by V.D.N.Rao, Former General Manager, India Trade Promotion Organisation, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi Ministry of Commerce, Govt. of India The author can be contacted at [email protected]